Maithili is one of the modern languages of India. Maithili is fluently spoken not only in Bihar and India but also in Nepal, Bhutan, and Mauritius and in many part of the world.  The department was established in the year 1970. In 1974 Prof. Veena Karna became the Head of the Maithili Department. Subsequently she was elevated as Head P.G. Department of Maithili, Patna University. “Maithili Sahitya Parishad” was established in 1974 and various programmes are organized by the Parishad. Dr. Aruna Choudhary is the present Head of the Department. She is also a member of the Sahitya Academy.